TEACHER TO THE PROFESSIONAL THROUGH LESSON STUDY
TEACHER TO THE PROFESSIONAL THROUGH LESSON STUDY
During this learning process received less attention from parents and government. The process of learning that takes place in the classroom no one knows except the teachers themselves. Most of the superintendent of education services were not functioning as a supervisor of learning in the classroom. When it arrived at the school, inspectors examine the administrative completeness of documents renpel teachers (lesson plans). Supervisors are very rarely go to class and observe the learning into the learning resource for teachers in schools. So did the principal. The headmaster is generally more concerned with teachers’ administrative documents, such as renpel of the incoming class observation and supervision of learning by a teacher. As a result, teachers are challenged to prepare to teach it well, think about a variety of teaching methods, preparing materials
for science experiments in the laboratory
Generally the learning conducted in the form of one-way. More teacher lectures in front of students while students listen more activity. Teachers assume their duties only to transfer the knowledge gained by the target tersampaikannya topics written in the curriculum document. In general, teachers do not inspire students to be creative and do not train students for independent living. Lessons are presented less teachers challenge students to think. As a result students do not like lessons.
To overcome these things teachers need to do lesson study, so the teacher can conduct a review of performance which can then be used as input to improve its performance. By implementing Lesson study, teachers will develop insight and motivated to constantly innovate which in turn would become a professional teacher.
1. Is Lesson Study?
2. Why is Lesson Study?
3. How to Study lesson?
1. Understanding Lesson Study
Lesson Study is a model of professional development of educators through the assessment of learning in a collaborative and sustainable based on the principles of collegiality and mutual learning to build a learning community. Thus, Lesson Study methods or strategies rather than learning but the Lesson Study activities can apply a variety of methods / learning strategies appropriate to the situation, conditions, and problems that teachers face. Lesson study can be done by a number of teachers and teaching experts that includes 3 (three) stages of activities, including planning (planning), implementation (action) learning and observation and reflection (reflection) of the planning and implementation of learning, in order to improve the quality of learning.
Lesson Study is essentially a form of teacher professional development activities are characterized by the teacher opened the lesson it manages for other fellow teachers as an observer, thus enabling teachers to share learning experiences with colleagues. Lesson study is a cyclic process of teacher training, beginning with a teacher: 1) planning lessons through academic exploration of teaching materials and learning tools, 2) conduct based learning plans and learning tools that are made, inviting colleagues to observe; 3 ) reflect on the lessons had been through the exchange of views, reviews, and discussions with the observer. Therefore, implementation of lesson study programs need to be monitored and evaluated so that it will know how to effectiveness, and acquisition keefesienan parties involved in it.
Lesson study as one of the program of activities to improve
competence of teachers and the quality of learning can be developed in schools as a study for the analysis of instructional practices implemented in the form of research-based learning to find a particular instructional innovation.
2. Benefits of Lesson Study
Lesson study is selected and implemented for several reasons. First, lesson study is an effective way to improve quality of learning that the teacher and student learning activities. This is because (1) the development of lesson study conducted and based on the results of “sharing” of professional knowledge based on practice and results of teaching held by teachers, (2) a fundamental emphasis on the implementation of a lesson study is that students have a quality learning, ( 3) competencies expected of students, the focus and point of major concern in the classroom, (4) based on real experiences in the classroom, lesson study could form the basis for the development of learning, and (5) lesson study will place the role of teachers as researchers learning (Lewis, 2002).
Second, the lesson study designed properly will make a professional and innovative teacher. By implementing lesson study teachers can (1) determine the necessary competence the students, to plan and implement learning (lesson) effective, (2) reviewing and improving the lessons are beneficial for students, (3) deepen the knowledge of the subjects who presented the teachers, (4) determine the competency standards to be achieved students, (5) in a collaborative lesson planning, (6) accurately assess student learning and behavior, (7) develop a reliable knowledge of learning, and (8) reflect on teaching is implemented based on the views of students and colleagues (Lewis, 2002).
Wang-Iverson and Yoshida (2005) says that the lesson study has several benefits sebagathe following.
1). Reduce the alienation of teachers (from community)
2). Helping teachers to observe and criticize the learning
3). Deepen teachers’ understanding of subject matter, scope and sequence of material in the curriculum.
4). Help teachers focus on helping all students’ learning activities.
5). Creating the exchange of knowledge about students’ understanding of thinking and learning
6). Increase collaboration on fellow teachers.
3. Implementation of Lesson Study
Robinson (2006) suggests there are eight stages based on the number of activities required in the implementation of lesson study, namely:
· Stage 1: Selection of topic lesson study
· Phase 2: Conduct Review syllabus to gain clarity of learning objectives for the topic and looking for ideas from the material in textbooks. Hereinafter work in groups to develop lesson plans.
· Stage 3: Each team has compiled lesson plans present or present their lesson plans, while other groups to give input, until finally gained a better lesson plan.
· Stage 4: Teacher who is appointed by the group uses these inputs to improve their lesson plans.
· Stage 5: Teachers who are appointed presented the lesson plan in front of all members of the lesson study groups to get feedback.
· Stage 6: The teacher who assigned the correct return lesson plans in more detail and sent to all members of the group of teachers, so they know how learning will be implemented in the classroom.
· Stage 7: The teacher can learn again about the lesson plan and consider it from various aspects of the learning experience they have, especially focused on important things like: things that will be the teacher, understanding students, the process of solving by students, and possibilities that will occur in the implementation of learning.
· Step 8: The teacher is carrying out the plan designated classroom, while other teachers with lecturer / expert observed in accordance with their respective duties to provide feedback to the teacher. Reflection meeting immediate implementation of the learning activities as soon as possible, to obtain input from teacher observer, and finally comments from faculty or outside experts about the whole process as well as suggestions for improvement of learning, if they repeat in their classes or to different topics.
Of the eight stages on appearance of the development and improvement efforts learning plans repeatedly to obtain the best lesson plan.
In the implementation of lesson study conducted by IMSTEP-JICA in Indonesia, Saito, et al (2005) introduced the lesson study oriented
the practice. Lesson study is carried out consists of three main stages, namely:
1. Plan learning with academic excavation on the topic and learning tools that are used, hereinafter called the Plan phase.
2. Implement learning refers to learning plans and tools are provided, and invited colleagues to observe. This activity is called the stage Do.
3. Implement reflection through a variety of opinions / responses and discussions with the observer / observer. This activity is called the stage of See.
At this stage to identify problems that exist in the class that will be used for planning activities and lesson study alternative solutions. Identification of problem solving in the context of the planning problem is related to the subject matter (subject matter) relevant to the class and schedule a lesson, the student and classroom characteristics, methods / approach to learning, media, props, and evaluation processes and learning outcomes.
From the results of this identification are discussed (in the lesson study group)
about the selection of learning materials, selection of methods and media appropriate to the characteristics of students, as well as the type of evaluation that will be used. At the time of discussion, it would appear discordant opinions and suggestions from teachers and experts in the group to set options that will be applied. At this stage, the expert can express important things / new that needs to be known and applied by teachers, as
such as constructive learning approach, learning approaches memandirikan student learning, contextual learning, life skill development, Realistic Mathematics Education, updating teaching materials, or any other that can be used as consideration inthe election.
It is important also to be discussed is the preparation of the observation sheet, especially the determination of the aspects that need attention in a learning process and the indicators, especially in terms of student behavior. Aspects of the learning process and the indicators were prepared based on the learning that was created and defined the basic competencies to the students after participating in the learning process.
From the results of problem identification and solution planning discussions, then compiled and packaged in a learning device comprising:
i. Learning Plan (RP)
ii. Learning Guidelines (Teaching Guide)
iii. Student Worksheet (BLM)
iv. Media or learning aids
v. Instruments and learning outcomes assessment process.
vi. Lesson observation sheet.
The preparation of these learning tools can be done by a teacher or several teachers on the basis of agreement on aspects of learning which is planned as a result of the discussion. The results of the preparation of the learning device needs to be consulted with the lecturer or teacher who is considered an expert in the group to be refined.
Planning can also be set on the contrary, the person or persons designated teachers in groups to identify problems and create solutions in the form of planning tools for learning a subject in a subject that has been established within the group. Furthermore, the identification of problems and tools for improved learning are discussed.
b) Implementation and Observation
At this stage a teacher who has been designated (approved) by the group, perform the implementation of learning implementation plan (RPP) which have been prepared
that, in the classroom. Experts and other teachers make observations using the observation sheet that has been prepared and other necessary devices. The observer noted the positives and negatives in the learning process, especially in terms of student behavior. Also (if possible), do a video recording (audio visual) that mengclose-up special events (the teacher or students) during the implementation of learning. The results of these recordings useful later on as authentic evidence of events that need to be discussed in the reflection stage or on the lesson study seminar, in addition it can be used as a dissemination to a wider audience.
Done learning practices, immediate reflection. At this stage of reflection, the teacher who appeared and the observer and expert discussions about the learning that has just done. The discussion was chaired by the Principal, Coordinator of the group, or teacher designated by the group. The first teachers implement lesson plans are given the opportunity to express his impressions during the performance of learning, both to himself and to the students faced.
Furthermore, the observer (other teachers and experts) convey the results of data analysis observations, particularly with respect to the activities of students during the learning takes place, along with playback of video recordings of learning. Furthermore, teachers who perform these implementations will provide feedback on the comments of the observer. It is also important in this stage of reflection is reconsidering lesson plans that had been developed as the basis for the improvement plan the next lesson. Is the lesson plan is appropriate and can enhance the performance of active student learning. If not there is compliance, what things are not appropriate, learning methods, materials dal
am LKS, media or props, or other. These considerations are used to improvement plan future learning.
Lesson Study is a model of professional development of educators through the assessment of learning in a collaborative and sustainable based on the principles of collegiality and mutual learning to build a learning community. Lesson Sudy stages include planning, implementation and observation, and reflection.