HISTORICAL LIBRARY IN INDONESIA
HISTORICAL LIBRARY IN INDONESIA.
History of libraries in Indonesia is still relatively young when compared with European and Arab countries. If we take the opinion that the library is marked with a known history of writing, the history of libraries in Indonesia can be started in the 400s when the phallus is a stone with the inscription Pallawa found from the period of the kingdom of Kutai. Fa-Hsien traveler from the year 414 Stating that the royal Ye-po-ti, the real royal Brahmans Tarumanegara encountered which would require a book or a religious manuscript that may be stored at the residence of the pastor.
In about the year 695 AD, according to traveler I-Tsing of China, the capital of the kingdom of Srivijaya lived more than 1,000 monks with religious duties and studying Buddhism through various books which of course is stored in various normal.
On the island of Java, the history of these libraries began during the kingdom of Mataram. This is because in the royal palace has since become known poet who wrote many works of literature. Such works as Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan which includes a description of Mahayana Buddhism. Following the story of Mahabharata Nine parwa juice and one kanda of the Ramayana epic. Also appearing are two religious books and Agastyaparwa Brahmandapurana. Another famous book of Arjuna Wiwaha is composed by mpu Kanwa.
From the description it is evident that the existing hand-written manuscript in palm leaf media that cater for the very special reader that kingdom. Kadiri Kingdom era known some poets with literary works. They are Sedah MPU and MPU Panuluh which together compose the book Bharatayudha. In addition panuluh MPU also composed the book and the book Gatotkacasrayya Hariwangsa. In addition there is a book Sumanasantaka Monaguna MPU and MPU TRIGUNA with kitam Kresnayana.
All the books were written on palm leaves with a very limited amount and still remain within the palace. The next period is the Kingdom Singosari. In this period produced no famous manuscript. Book of famous Pararaton was allegedly written after the collapse of the empire Singosari. At the time of Majapahit generated Negarakertagama produced books written by mpu Prapanca. While writing a book Sutasoma Tantular MPU. In this era also produced other works such as Song of Harsawijaya, Song of Ranggalawe, Sorandaka, and Sundayana.
Script writing and storage activities still continued by the kings and sultans are scattered in the archipelago. For example, the kingdom era Demak, Bantam, Mataram, Surakarta Pakualaman, Mangkunegoro, Cirebon, Demak, Banten, Malay, Jambi, Mempawah, Makassar, the Moluccas, and Sumbawa. From the known Cerebon produced dozens of books written about the 16th century and the 17th. These books are library-Rajya Rajya & Earth Collection (25 volumes), Reader Praratwan (10 volumes), Reader Nagarakretabhumi (12 volumes), Purwwaka Samatabhuwana (17 volumes), the legal text (2 vols), Usadha (15 volumes) , manuscript Masasastra (42 volumes), Usana (24 volumes), Song of Songs (18 volumes), Reader inscription (35 volumes), Fiber Nitrasamaya pantara ning of the kings (18 volumes), the Carita Waliya (20 volumes), and lainlain. Thus it can be said that the Cirebon is one perbukuan center of its time. As in previous masamasa books are kept in the palace.
The arrival of the West in the 16th century brought its own culture. The library began to be established initially for the purpose of supporting the programs spread their religion. Based on secondary sources of the earliest library was established in this period is the period of VOC (Vereenigde OostJurnal Indische Compaqnie) the library of the church in Batavia (now Jakarta) built since 1624. But because of some difficulties of this new library was inaugurated on 27 April 1643 with the appointment of a librarian named Ds. (Dominus) Abraham Fierenius. During this period the library is no longer reserved for the royal family, but began to be enjoyed by the general public. The library lends books for hospital nurses Batavia, even borrowing books and extended to Juana Semarang (Central Java). So in the 17th century Indonesia are familiar with the expansion of library services (now with a service like this is called inter-library borrowing or interlibrary loan). More than one hundred years later established a special library in Batavia. On 25 April 1778 stood Bataviaasche Genootschap Kunsten van en Wetenschappen (BGKW) in Batavia. Along with the establishment of these institutions also stand BGKW institute library. The establishment of the library institution was initiated by Mr. BGKW. J.C.M.
Rademaker, chairman of the Raad van Indie (Council of the Netherlands East Indies). He initiated the collection of books and manuscripts for the library collection. The library is then issued a catalog of books the first in Indonesia, namely in 1846 under the title Catalogue Bibliotecae Artiumcientiaerumquae Batavia Florest Systematicus edits P. Bleeker. The second edition published in Dutch in 1848. The library is active in the exchange of library materials. Publishing material that is used as the exchange is Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, Verhandelingen van het van Bataviaasch Genootschapn Kunsten en Wetenschappen, Jaarboek and Werken Buiten de Serie. Due to exceptional achievement in improving science and culture, hence its name added to the Royal Bataviaasch Genootschap Kunsten van en Wetenschappen. This name was later changed to the Institute of Culture Indonesia in 1950.
In 1962 the Cultural Institute of Indonesia submitted to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and namanyapun converted into the Museum Center. Library collection to bepart of the Museum Center and known as the Central Museum Library. The name of the Central Museum was later changed again to the National Museum, while the library is known as the National Museum Library.
In 1980 merged into the National Museum Library Library Development Center. Changes occurred again in 1989 when the Central Library Development was merged as part of the National Library of Indonesia. After the construction of BKGW, stand other special libraries along with the establishment of various research institutions and other government agencies. For example, in 1842 founded Bibliotheek’s Lands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg. In 1911 the name changed to Central Natuurwetenchap-pelijke Bibliotheek van het van Lanbouw Department, Nijverheid en Handel. This name was then changed again into Bibliotheca Bogoriensis. In 1962 the name was changed again to the Central Library of Agricultural Engineering Research, later became the Center for Biological and Agricultural Library. This library changed its name back into the library was named the Central Library of Agricultural and Communication Research. This library is now named the Central Library and Dissemination The results of the study. After the cultivation period, the Dutch East Indies government to run an ethical politics to avenge the “debt” to the people of Indonesia. One of unethical political activity is the construction of school people.
In the school library field, the Dutch East Indies government established Volksbibliotheek or translation of community libraries, but the meaning is different with the understanding the public library. Volksbibliotheek means libraries established by Volkslectuur (later changed to Central Library), while its management handed over to Volkschool. Volkschool school means the people who receive low levels of two graduate schools. This library serves the students and teachers as well as providing reading materials for local people. Pupils are free, while the general public free of charge for each book borrowed.
If in 1911 the government established the Dutch East Indies Dutch East Indies to establish Indonesische Volksblibliotheken, then in 1916 founded the Nederlandsche Volksblibliotheken which are incorporated in Holland-Inlandsche School (HIS). H.I.S. is a kind of high school with the language of Dutch. Nederlandsche goal is to meet the needsVolksblibliotheken reading teachers and pupils. In Batavia recorded several private schools, including schools belong to Tiong Hoa, Hwe Koan, which has a library. The school received a book from the Commercial Press (Shanghai) and Chung Hua Book Co.. (Shanghai).
Actually before the Dutch East Indies government established the school library, founded the first private library that resembles the public library today. In the beginning of the year 1910 stood Openbare leeszalen. This term may be translated in terms of the general reading room. Openbare leeszalen was founded by, among others, Loge der Vrijmetselaren, Theosofische Vereeniging, and the Maatschappij tot Nut van het Algemeen.
Development of Higher Education Libraries in Indonesia began in the early 1920s that followed the establishment of high schools, such as Geneeskunde Hoogeschool in Batavia (1927) and later also in Surabaya with STOVIA; Technische Hoogescholl in Bandung (1920), van Fakultait Landbouwwentenschap (er Wijsgebeerte Bitenzorg, 1941), Rechtshoogeschool in Batavia (1924), and Faculty van Letterkunde in Batavia (1940). Any high school or faculty that have a separate library with one another.
At the time of the Dutch East Indies also developed a kind of commercial libraries that are known by the name of the library Huurbibliotheek or lease. Rental library is a library that lends books to the wearer to collect rent. At that competition occurs between Volksbibliotheek with Huurbibliotheek. Thus even though in practice there are differences in the reading material provided. Volksbibliotheek more popular scientific literature provides, then the more Huurbibliotheek library provides reading material in the form of novel in Dutch, English, French, and reading books teenage girls. Besides the books there were rental rental manuscript, for example, the author of Muhammad Bakir in 1897 to manage a rental library in Pecenongan, Jakarta. This type of lease manuscript are also found in Palembang and Banjarmasin. Scripts are generally leased for a fee, accompanied by a request to the readers to handle text well.In addition to the library which was established by the Government of the Netherlands Indies, actually recorded a library that was founded by the people of Indonesia. Library founded Palace party Mangkunegoro Yogyakarta palace while the court set up Radyo Pustoko. Most of the collection is an ancient manuscript. Library collections are not loaned, but should be read in place. During the Japanese occupation virtually no meaningful development of the library. Japan only secure some important buildings such as Bataviaasch Genootschap Kunten Weetenschappen van.
During the Japanese occupation openbare leeszalen closed. Volkbibliotheek looted by the people and vanished from the earth’s surface. Because of the strong security at the building Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunten Weetenschappen the library collection can be maintained, and is the forerunner of the National Library. The development of post-independence may be started from the year 1950 marked the establishment of a new library. On August 25, 1950 stood Foundation Bung Hatta library with a collection that focuses on the management of science and culture of Indonesia.
Dated June 7, 1952 Stichting voor culturele Samenwerking library, a body of cultural cooperation between the government of Indonesia to the Netherlands government, handed over to the government of Indonesia. Then by the Government of Indonesia is converted to Library of Political and Social History Department of P & K. In order to attempt to eradicate illiteracy throughout the country, has established the Public Library in charge of Bureau of Public Education to help businesses make the effort to eradicate illiteracy. In this period also born sebagaiperpustakaan library that serves the general State and Provincial Capital was founded on. The first State Library was established in Yogyakarta in 1949, then followed Ambon (1952), Bandung (1953); Ujung Pandang (1954); Padang (1956); Palembang (1957), Jakarta (1958); Palangkaraya, Singaraja, Mataram, Medan,
Pekanbaru and Jakarta (1959). After that followed later in Banjarmasin Library Nagara (1960); Manado (1961); Kupang and Samarinda (1964). State Library was developed by cross instansional by three agencies namely the Bureau of the Ministry of P & K Library that foster technically, Representative of Ministry of P & K which foster administratively, Provincial and Local Government to provide facilities.